Lead Acid 12 V (6 cells each of 2 V)
Lead-acid batteries have been around for so long. It was invented around 150 years ago. Up to this point, all existing batteries would be permanently drained when all their chemical reactions were spent. This was the first-ever battery that could be recharged by passing a reverse current through it. Today The lead-acid battery is best known as the de facto rechargeable energy storage solution of choice for most cars, trucks, UPS, and pretty much in any mid-range application you can think of that requires a low cost. ), that it’s easy for them to be out shined by newer flashier battery technologies like lithium ion. However, there’s good reason lead-acid batteries have lasted since the 19th century — they’re cheap, safe, durable, and dependable. Simple and inexpensive to manufacture, with a global supply chain that’s unlikely to go anywhere any time soon, it’s likely that lead acid batteries will continue to stay relevant as a dependable low-cost power source for applications where space isn’t a premium
Lithium ion (3.7 V)
Lithium-ion batteries are incredibly popular these days. You can find them in laptops, PDAs, cell phones and iPods. They're some of the most energetic rechargeable batteries available.
They have no memory effect, which means that you do not have to completely discharge them before recharging, as with some other battery chemistries
They hold their charge. A lithium-ion battery pack loses only about 5 percent of its charge per month, compared to a 20 percent loss per month for NiMH batteries
They can store about 150 watt-hours of electricity for 1 Kg, which is 6 times more than lead-acid batteries and twice as much as NiCd batteries
Sony's created the first commercial cylindrical Li-ion cell in 1991. After that, other packaging forms evolved, including the pouch format now also called "LiPo". (Lithium-ion Polymer)
Lithium is also a highly reactive element,. This means that overcharge, over-discharge, over-temperature, short circuit, crush and nail penetration may all result in a catastrophic failure, including the pouch rupturing, and fire
Click here for the story of Lithium
NiMH (1.2 V)
Nickel-metal Hydride (NiMH) cells have largely replaced NiCd as the default battery for most electronics devices that use AA- or AAA-sized battery. NiMH cells are often used in digital cameras and other high-drain devices. NiMH cells can deliver high current levels without loss of capacity and hence turn out to be better than buying multiple non-rechargeable alkaline batteries. They have lower energy than Lithium ion batteries, but are also lower in cost compared to Li-ion.
Alkaline Batteries (1.5 V)
A 9V alkaline battery consists of 6 cells each of 1.5V. Even button cells and coin cells are made up of these materials. It is a single use battery and non-rechargeable.